Mental health has been the area most sensitive to economic changes so far. A long-term decline in suicides in the European Union has been reversed (Stuckler et al. 2001), with increases mainly concentrated among men of working age (Barr et al. 2012, Kondilis et al. 2013). In the newest EU Member States suicides peaked in 2009 and remained high in 2010. In other Member States further increases were observed in 2010 (Economou et al 2013). Research in England has confirmed the close association with job losses (Barr et al. 2012)

However, suicides are only the tip of the mental health iceberg and research in South Europe has shown marked increases in depression and anxiety (Economou et al. 2013), with one study demonstrating a strong association with job loss and mortgage foreclosure (Gili et al. 2012)


Agudelo-Suárez AA, AA, Ronda E, Vázquez-Navarrete ML, García AM, Martínez JM, Benavides FG. Impact of economic crisis on mental health of migrant workers: what happened with migrants who came to Spain to work? Int J Public Health. 2013 Aug;58(4):627-31. 

Alvarez-Galvez J, Salinas-Perez JA, Rodero-Cosano ML, Salvador-Carulla L. Methodological barriers to studying the association between the economic crisis and suicide in Spain. BMC Public Health 2017 Sep 6;17(1):694. doi: 10.1186/s12889-017-4702-0.

Amara SG, Grillner S, Insel T, Nutt D, Tsumoto T. Neuroscience in recession? Nat Rev Neurosci. 2011 May;12(5):297-302

Anagnostopoulos D, Soumaki E. The impact of socio-economic crisis on mental health of children and adolescents. Psychiatrike. 2012 Jan-Mar;23(1):13-6.

Anagnostopoulos DC, Soumaki E. The state of child and adolescent psychiatry in Greece during the international financial crisis: a brief report. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2013 Feb;22(2):131-4.

Antonakakis N, Collins A. The impact of fiscal austerity on suicide mortality: Evidence across the 'Eurozone periphery'. Soc Sci Med. 2015 Nov;145:63-78. Epub 2015 Sep 30.

Antonakakis N, Collins A. The impact of fiscal austerity on suicide: On the empirics of a modern Greek tragedy. Soc Sci Med. 2014 Jul;112:39-50. 

Avčin BA, Kučina AU, Sarotar BN, Radovanović M, Plesničar BK. The present global financial and economic crisis poses an additional risk factor for mental health problems on the employees. Psychiatr Danub. 2011 Sep;23 Suppl 1:S142-8.

Bacigalupe A, Esnaola S, Martín U. The impact of the Great Recession on mental health and its inequalities: the case of a Southern European region, 1997-2013. Int J Equity Health. 2016 Jan 26;15(1):17.

Barnes MC, Gunnell D, Davies R, Hawton K, Kapur N, Potokar J, Donovan JL. Understanding vulnerability to self-harm in times of economic hardship and austerity: a qualitative study. BMJ Open. 2016 Feb 17;6(2):e010131.

Barr B, Taylor-Robinson D, Scott-Samuel A, McKee M, Stuckler D. Suicides associated with the 2008-10 economic recession in England: time trend analysis. BMJ. 2012 Aug 13;345:e5142. 

Barr B, Kinderman P, Whitehead M.Trends in mental health inequalities inEngland during a period of recession, austerity and welfare reform 2004 to 2013.SocSci Med. 2015 Dec;147:324-31.

Bartfay WJ, Bartfay E, Wu T. Impact of the global economic crisis on the health of unemployed autoworkers. Can J Nurs Res. 2013 Sep;45(3):66-79.

Bartoll X, Palència L, Malmusi D, Suhrcke M, Borrell C. The evolution of mental health in Spain during the economic crisis. Eur J Public Health. 2013 Dec 23. [Epub ahead of print]

Belloni M, Meschi E, Pasini G. The Effect on Mental Health of Retiring During the Economic Crisis. Health Econ 2016 Nov 25;Suppl 2:126-140.

Benioudakis ES, Lykiardopoulos V, Georgiou V, Archontaki MD, Tsourounaki A, Botonaki G, et al. Suicide Attempts and Their Interrelation With the Economic Crisis in Chania, Greece: A Time-Series Analysis of the Period 2008-2015. Prim Care Companion CSN Disord 2017 Jan19;19(1).

Blomqvist S, Burström B, Backhans MC. Increasing health inequalities between women in and out of work - the impact of recession or policy change? A repeated cross-sectional study in Stockholm county, 2006 and 2010. Int J Equity Health. 2014 Jul 25;13:51.

Bonnie Lee C, Liao CM, Lin CM. The impacts of the global financial crisis on hospitalizations due to depressive illnesses in Taiwan: A prospective nationwide population-based study. J Affect Disord 2017 Oct 15;221:65-71. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.06.028. Epub 2017 Jun 15.

Branas CC, Kastanaki AE, Michalodimitrakis M, Tzougas J, Kranioti EF, Theodorakis PN, Carr BG, Wiebe DJ The impact of economic austerity and prosperity events on suicide in Greece: a 30-year interrupted time-series analysis. BMJ Open2015;5:e005619

Brenner MH, Andreeva E, Theorell T, Goldberg M, Westerlund H, Leineweber C, Hanson LL, Imbernon E, Bonnaud S. Organizational downsizing and depressive symptoms in the European recession: the experience of workers in France, Hungary, Sweden and the United kingdom. PLoS One. 2014 May 19;9(5):e97063.

Breuer C. Unemployment and suicied mortality: evidence from regional panel data in Europe. Health Econ. 2014 Jun 17. [Epub ahead of print] 

Buffel V, van de Straat V, Bracke P.Employment status and mental health care use in times of economic contraction: a repeated cross-sectional study in Europe, using a three-level model. Int J Equity Health. 2015 Mar 11;14(1):29.

Buffel V, Van de Velde S, Bracke P. The mental health consequences of the economic crisis in Europe among the employed, the unemployed, and the non-employed. Soc Sci Res. 2015 Nov;54:263-88 Epub 2015 Aug 28.

Cagney KA, Browning CR, Iveniuk J, English N. The Onset of Depression During the Great Recession: Foreclosure and Older Adult Mental Health. Am J Public Health. 2014 Jan 21. [Epub ahead of print]

Caicedo M, van Gameren E. [Unemployment and mental health among Hispanics in the US: an epidemiological analysis].Cien Saude Colet. 2016 Mar;21(3):955-66. Spanish.

Chan CH, Caine ED, You S, Fu KW, Chang SS, Yip PS. Suicide rates among working-age adults in South Korea before and after the 2008 economic crisis. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2013 Nov 18 [Epub ahead of print]

Chang SS, Stuckler D, Yip P, Gunnell D. Impact of 2008 global economic crisis on suicide: time trend study in 54 countries. BMJ. 2013 Sep 17;347:f5239. 

Chatterjee P. Economic crisis highlights mental health issues in India. Lancet. 2009 Apr 4;373(9670):1160-1.

Chen L, Li W, He J, Wu L, Yan Z, Tang W. Mental health, duration of unemployment, and coping strategy: a cross-sectional study of unemployed migrant workers in eastern China during the economic crisis. BMC Public Health. 2012 Aug 2;12:597.

Chen J, Dagher R. Gender and Race/Ethnicity Differences in Mental Health Care Use before and during the Great Recession. J Behav Health Serv Res. 2014 Apr 5. [Epub ahead of print] 

Christopoulos A. External and internal reality: The impact of the current socio-economic crisis on the analytic dyad. Int J Psychoanal. 2014 Nov 6. [Epub ahead of print] 

Christodoulou C, Efstathiou V, Michopoulos I, Gkerekou M, Paraschakis A, Koutsaftis F, et al. The Economic Crisis in Greece and Its Impact on the Seasonality of Suicides in the Athens Greater Area.
Psychiatry Investig 2017 Jan;14(1):16-20.

Christodoulou GN, Christodoulou NG. The financial crisis and its impact on mental health.Psychiatrike. 2013 Apr-Jun;24(2):95-8.

Christodoulou GN, Ploumpidis DN, Christodoulou NG, Anagnostopoulos DC. The state of psychiatry in Greece. Int Rev Psychiatry. 2012 Aug;24(4):301-6. 

Collier R. Recession stresses mental health system. CMAJ. 2009 Aug 4;181(3-4):E48-9.

Compton WM, Gfroerer J, Conway KP, Finger MS. Unemployment and substance outcomes in the United States 2002-2010. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2014 Sep 1;142:350-3.

Coope C, Gunnell D, Hollingworth W, Hawton K, Kapur N, Fearn V, Wells C, Metcalfe C. Suicide and the 2008 economic recession: Who is most at risk? Trends in suicide rates in England and Wales 2001-2011. Soc Sci Med. 2014 Sep;117:76-85.

Cooper B. Economic recession and mental health: an overview. Neuropsychiatr. 2011;25(3):113-7.

Córdoba-Doña JA, San Sebastián M, Escolar-Pujolar A, Martínez-Faure JE, Gustafsson PE. Economic crisis and suicidal behaviour: the role of unemployment, sex and age in Andalusia, Southern Spain. Int J Equity Health. 2014 Jul 25;13:55.

Córdoba-Doña JA, Escolar-Pujolar A, San Sebastiá¡n M, Gustafsson PE. How are the employed and unemployed affected by the economic crisis in Spain? Educational inequalities, life conditions and mental health in a context of high unemployment. BMC Public Health. 2016 Mar 15;16(1):267.

Corcoran P, Griffin E, Arensman E, Fitzgerald AP, Perry IJ.Impact of the economic recession and subsequent austerity on suicide and self-harm in Ireland: An interrupted time series analysis. Int J Epidemiol. 2015 Jun 16. [Epub ahead of print]

Cornaggia CM, Beghi M, Mezzanzanica M, Ronzoni G, Vittadini G, Maffenini W. Psychotropic Drug Consumption and Employment Status in Time of Economic Crisis (2007-2011). Psychiatr Q. 2016 Jul 6. [Epub ahead of print]

Christodoulou C, Efstathiou V, Michopoulos I, Ferentinos P, Korkoliakou P, Gkerekou M, Bouras G, Papadopoulou A, Papageorgiou C, Douzenis A. A case-control study of hopelessness and suicidal behavior in the city of Athens, Greece. The role of the financial crisis. Psychol Health Med. 2016 Mar 30:1-6. [Epub ahead of print]

Gili M, López-Navarro E, Castro A, Homar C, Navarro C, García-Toro M, García-Campayo J, Roca M. Gender differences in mental health during the economic crisis. Psicothema 2016;28(4):407-413.

Cylus J, Glymour MM, Avendano M. Do generous unemployment benefit programs reduce suicide rates? A state fixed-effect analysis covering 1968-2008. Am J Epidemiol. 2014 Jul 1;180(1):45-52.

Danesh MJ, Kimball AB. Brodalumab and suicidal ideation in the context of arecent economic crisis in the United States. J Am AcadDermatol. 2016Jan;74(1):190-2.

De Jong Gierveld J, Keating N, Fast JE. Determinants of Loneliness among Older Adults in Canada. Can J Aging. 2015 Jun;34(2):125-36. Epub 2015 Feb 24.

De Beurs DP, Hooiveld M, Kerkhof AJ, Korevaar JC, Donker GA. Trends in suicidal behaviour in Dutch general practice 1983-2013: a retrospective observational study. BMJ Open. 2016 May 10;6(5):e010868.

De Vogli R, Marmot M, Stuckler D. Excess suicides and attempted suicides in Italy attributable to the great recession. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2013 Apr;67(4):378-9. 

De Vogli R, Marmot M, et Stuckler D. Strong evidence that the economic crisis caused a rise in suicides in Europe: the need for social protection. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2013 Apr;67(4):298. 

De Vogli R, Vieno A, Lenzi M. Mortality due to mental and behavioral disorders associated with the Great Recession (2008-10) in Italy: a time trend analysis. Eur J Public Health. 2013 Nov 18. [Epub ahead of print]

Dias Neto D, Figueiras MJ, Campos S, Tavares P. Impact of economic crisis on the social representation of mental health: Analysis of a decade of newspaper coverage. Int J Soc Psychiatry 2017 Dec;63(8):736-743. doi: 10.1177/0020764017737102 [Epub ahead of print 2017 Oct 23].

Drydakis N. The effect of unemployment on self-reported health and mental health in Greece from 2008 to 2013: A longitudinal study before and during the financial crisis. Soc Sci Med. 2015 Mar;128:43-51. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.12.025. Epub 2014 Dec 24

Dom G, Samochowiec J, Evans-Lacko S, Wahlbeck K, Van Hal G, McDaid D. The Impact of the 2008 Economic Crisis on Substance Use Patterns in the Countries of the European Union. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016 Jan 13;13(1)

Duleba T, Gonda X, Rihmer Z, Dome P. Economic recession, unemployment and suicide]. Neuropsychopharmacol Hung. 2012 Mar;14(1):41-50.

Economou M, Peppou LE, Souliotis K, Malliori M, Papadimitriou GN. Gambling and the enduring financial recession in Greece. World Psychiatry. 2014 Oct;13(3):324.

Economou M, Madianos M, Peppou LE, Souliotis K, Patelakis A, Stefanis C. Cognitive social capital and mental illness during economic crisis: A nationwide population-based study in Greece. Soc Sci Med. 2014 Jan;100:141-7. 

Economou M, Peppou L, Fousketaki S, Theleritis Ch, Patelakis A, Alexiou T, Madianos M, Stefanis C. Economic crisis and mental health: effects on the prevalence of common mental disorders. Psychiatrike. 2013 Oct-Dec;24(4):247-61. 

Economou M, Madianos M, Peppou LE, Patelakis A, Stefanis CN. Major depression in the era of economic crisis: a replication of a cross-sectional study across Greece. J Affect Disord. 2013 Mar 5;145(3):308-14. 

Economou M, Madianos M, Peppou LE, Theleritis C, Patelakis A, Stefanis C. Suicidal ideation and reported suicide attempts in Greece during the economic crisis. World Psychiatry. 2013 Feb;12(1):53-9. 

Economou M, Madianos M, Peppou LE, Theleritis C, Stefanis CN. Suicidality and the economic crisis in Greece. Lancet. 2012 Jul 28;380(9839):337; author reply 337-8. 

Economou M, Madianos M, Theleritis C, Peppou LE, Stefanis CN. Increased suicidality amid economic crisis in Greece. Lancet. 2011 Oct 22;378(9801):1459. 

Economou M, Angelopoulos E, Peppou LE, Souliotis K, Tzavara C, Kontoangelos K, Madianos M, Stefanis C. Enduring financial crisis in Greece: prevalence and correlates of major depression and suicidality. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2016 May 13. [Epub ahead of print]

Economou M, Angelopoulos E, Peppou LE, Souliotis K, Stefanis C. Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in Greece during the economic crisis: an update. World Psychiatry. 2016 Feb;15(1):83-4. No abstract available.

Economou M, Bergiannaki JD, Peppou LE, Karayanni I, Skalkotos G, Patelakis A, Souliotis K, Stefanis C. Attitudes towards depression, psychiatric medication and help-seeking intentions amid financial crisis: Findings from Athens area. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2016 May;62(3):243-51.

Economou M, Angelopoulos E, Peppou LE, Souliotis K, Stefanis C. Major depression amid financial crisis in Greece: Will unemployment narrow existing gender differences in the prevalence of the disorder in Greece? Psychiatry Res. 2016;242:260-1.

Egan M, Daly M, Delaney L. Adolescent psychological distress, unemployment, and the Great Recession: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997. Soc Sci Med. 2016 May;156:98-105.

Elliott M, Naphan DE, Kohlenberg BL. Suicidal behavior during economic hard times. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2014 Oct 30. [Epub ahead of print] 

Evans-Lacko S, Knapp M, McCrone P, Thornicroft G, Mojtabai R. The mental health consequences of the recession: economic hardship and employment of people with mental health problems in 27 European countries. PLoS One. 2013 Jul 26;8(7):e69792. 

Faresjö Å, Theodorsson E, Chatziarzenis M, Sapouna V, Claesson HP, Koppner J, Faresjö T. Higher perceived stress but lower cortisol levels found among young Greek adults living in a stressful social environment in comparison with Swedish young adults. PLoS One. 2013 Sep 16;8(9):e73828

Fernandez A, Garcia-Alonso J, Royo-Pastor C, Garrell-Corbera I, Rengel-Chica J, Agudo-Ugena J, Ramos A, Mendive JM. Effects of the economic crisis and social support on health-related quality of life: first wave of a longitudinal study in Spain. Br J Gen Pract. 2015 Mar;65(632):e198-203. 

Fountoulakis KN. Employment insecurity, mental health and suicide. Psychiatriki 2017 Jul-Sep;28(3):259-264. doi: 10.22365/jpsych.2017.283.259.

Fountoulakis KN, Kawohl W, Theodorakis PN, Kerkhof AJ, et al. Relationship of suicide rates to economic variables in Europe: 2000-2011. Br J Psychiatry. 2014 Oct 30. [Epub ahead of print] 

Fountoulakis KN, Gonda X, Dome P, Theodorakis PN, Rihmer Z. Possible delayed effect of unemployment on suicidal rates: the case of Hungary. Ann Gen Psychiatry. 2014 Apr 23;13:12. 

Fountoulakis KN, Koupidis SA, Siamouli M, Grammatikopoulos IA, Theodorakis PN. Suicide, recession, and unemployment. Lancet. 2013 Mar 2;381(9868):721-2.

Fountoulakis KN, Savopoulos C, Siamouli M, Zaggelidou E, Mageiria S, Iacovides A, Hatzitolios AI. Trends in suicidality amid the economic crisis in Greece. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2013 Aug;263(5):441-4. 

Frasquilho D, de Matos MG, Marques A, Gaspar T, Caldas-de-Almeida JM. Distress and unemployment: the related economic and noneconomic factors in a sample of unemployed adults. Int J Public Health. 2016 Mar 14. [Epub ahead of print]

Frasquilho D, Matos MG, Salonna F, Guerreiro D, Storti CC, Gaspar T, Caldas-de-Almeida JM. Mental health outcomes in times of economic recession: a systematic literature review. BMC Public Health. 2016 Feb 3;16(1):115.

Gili M, García Campayo J, Roca M. [Economic crisis and mental health.]. Gac Sanit. 2014 Mar 21. pii: S0213-9111(14)00045-4. [Epub ahead of print]

Gili M, Roca M, Basu S, McKee M, Stuckler D. The mental health risks of economic crisis in Spain: evidence from primary care centres, 2006 and 2010. Eur J Public Health. 2013 Feb;23(1):103-8.

Giorgi G, Arcangeli G, Mucci N, Cupelli V. Economic stress in workplace: The impact of fear the crisis on mental health. Work. 2014 Mar 4. [Epub ahead of print]

Giotakos O, Karabelas D, Kafkas A. [Financial crisis and mental health in Greece]. Psychiatrike. 2011 Apr-Jun;22(2):109-19.

Giotakos O, Tsouvelas G, Kontaxakis V. [Suicide rates and mental health services in Greece]. Psychiatrike. 2012 Jan-Mar;23(1):29-38.

Giotakos O. [Financial crisis and mental health]. Psychiatrike. 2010 Jul-Sep;21(3):195-204.

Giuntoli G, Hughes S, Karban K, South J. Towards a middle-range theory of mental health and well-being effects of employment transitions: Findings from a qualitative study on unemployment during the 2009-2010 economic recession. Health (London). 2014 Oct 15. [Epub ahead of print] 

Gualano MR, Bert F, Mannocci A, La Torre G, Zeppegno P, Siliquini R. Consumption of Antidepressants in Italy: Recent Trends and Their Significance for Public Health. Psychiatr Serv. 2014 Jul 1.  [Epub ahead of print]

Gunnarsdóttir H, Hensing G, Povlsen L, Petzold M. Relative deprivation in the Nordic countries-child mental health problems in relation to parental financial stress. Eur J Public Health. 2015 Oct 21. [Epub ahead of print]

Gunnell D, Platt S, Hawton K. The economic crisis and suicide. BMJ. 2009 May 15;338:b1891. 

Haw C, Hawton K, Gunnell D, Platt S. Economic recession and suicidal behaviour: Possible mechanisms and ameliorating factors. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2014 Jun 4. pii: 0020764014536545. [Epub ahead of print] 

Henderson RC, Corker E, Hamilton S, Williams P, Pinfold V, Rose D, Webber M, Evans-Lacko S, Thornicroft G. Viewpoint survey of mental health service users'experiences of discrimination in England 2008-2012. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2014 Oct;49(10):1599-608.

Houle JN. Mental health in the foreclosure crisis. Soc Sci Med. 2014 Oct;118:1-8. 

Houle JN, Light MT. The home foreclosure crisis and rising suicide rates, 2005 to 2010. Am J Public Health. 2014 Jun;104(6):1073-9.

Hyphantis T. The "depression" of mental health care in general hospitals in Greece in the era of recession. J Psychosom Res. 2013 Jun;74(6):530-2.

Iglesias García C, Sáiz Martinez P, García-Portilla González MP, Bousoño García M, Jiménez Treviño L, Sánchez Lasheras F, Bobes J. Effects of the economic crisis on demand due to mental disorders in Asturias: data from the Asturias Cumulative Psychiatric Case Register (2000-2010). Actas Esp Psiquiatr. 2014 May-Jun;42(3):108-15.

Isabel RP, Miguel RB, Antonio RG, Oscar MG. Economic crisis and suicides in Spain. Socio-demographic and regional variability. Eur J Health Econ. 2016 Mar 2. [Epub ahead of print]

Jalles JT, Andresen MA. Suicide and unemployment: a panel analysis of Canadian provinces. Arch Suicide Res. 2014;18(1):14-27.

Kaplan MS, Huguet N, Caetano R, Giesbrecht N, Kerr WC, McFarland BH. Economic contraction, alcohol intoxication and suicide: analysis of the National Violent Death Reporting System. Inj Prev. 2014 Jul 14. [Epub ahead of print].

Karanikolos M, Mladovsky P, Cylus J, et al. Financial crisis, austerity, and health in Europe. Lancet 2013; Published online March 27, 2013.

Katikireddi SV, Niedzwiedz CL, Popham F. Trends in population mental health before and after the 2008 recession: a repeat cross-sectional analysis of the 1991-2010 Health Surveys of England. BMJ Open. 2012 Oct 17;2(5). 

Knapp M. Mental health in an age of austerity. Evid Based Ment Health. 2012 Aug;15(3):54-5. 

König D, Swoboda P, Cramer RJ, Krall C, Postuvan V, Kapusta ND. Austrian firearm legislation and its effects on suicide and homicide mortality: A natural quasi-experiment amidst the global economic crisis. Eur Psychiatry. 2018 May 16;52:104-112. doi: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2018.04.006. [Epub ahead of print]

Kokkinen L, Muntaner C, Kouvonen A, Koskinen A, Varje P, Väänänen A. Welfare state retrenchment and increasing mental health inequality by educational credentials in Finland: a multicohort study. BMJ Open. 2015 Jun 3;5(6):e007297.

Kolaitis G, Giannakopoulos G. Greek financial crisis and child mental health. Lancet. 2015 Jul 25;386(9991):335. 

Kondilis E, Giannakopoulos S, Gavana M, Ierodiakonou I, Waitzkin H, Benos A. Economic crisis, restrictive policies, and the population's health and health care: the Greek case. Am J Public Health. 2013 Jun;103(6):973-9.

Kondilis E, Ierodiakonou I, Gavana M, Giannakopoulos S, Benos A. Suicide mortality and economic crisis in Greece: men's Achilles' heel. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2013 Jun;67(6):e1.

Kontaxakis V, Papaslanis T, Havaki-Kontaxaki B, Tsouvelas G, Giotakos O, Papadimitriou G. Suicide in Greece: 2001-2011. Psychiatrike. 2013 Jul-Sep;24(3):170-174.

Korosec Jagodic H, Rokavec T, Agius M, Pregelj P. Availability of mental health service providers and suicide rates in Slovenia: a nationwide ecological study. Croat Med J. 2013 Oct 28;54(5):444-52.

Lampropoulos K, Kavvouras C, Megalou E, Tsikouri P, Kafkala C, Derka D, Bonou M, Barbetseas J. Association between anxiety and depression in patients with acute coronary syndromes due financial crisis. Kardiol Pol. 2016 May 10. [Epub ahead of print]

Lazaratou H, Kalogerakis Z, Economou M, Xenitidis K. Socioeconomic crisis and aggressive behaviour of Greek adolescents. Int J Soc Psychiatry 2017 Sep;63(6):488-491. doi: 10.1177/0020764017719737.

Lindström M, Giordano GN. The 2008 financial crisis: Changes in social capital and its association with psychological wellbeing in the United Kingdom - A panel study. Soc Sci Med. 2016 Mar;153:71-80..

Laanani M, Ghosn W, Jougla E, Rey G. Impact of unemployment variations on suicide mortality in Western European countries (2000-2010). J Epidemiol Community Health. 2014 Jun 18. pii: jech-2013-2

Lansley A. In the spotlight. The cost of the recession to mental health. Ment Health Today. 2009 Apr:9.

Lee S, Guo WJ, Tsang A, Mak AD, Wu J, Ng KL, Kwok K. Evidence for the 2008 economic crisis exacerbating depression in Hong Kong. J Affect Disord. 2010 Oct;126(1-2):125-33.

Leopold C, Zhang F, Mantel-Teeuwisse AK, Vogler S, Valkova S, Ross-Degnan D, Wagner AK. Impact of pharmaceutical policy interventions on utilization of antipsychotic medicines in Finland and Portugal in times of economic recession: interrupted time series analyses. Int J Equity Health. 2014 Jul 25;13:53.

Limb M. Austerity measures will lead to rise in unemployment and suicides, says Marmot. BMJ. 2012 Apr 20;344:e2887. 

Lopez Bernal JA, Gasparrini A, Artundo CM, McKee M. The effect of the late 2000s financial crisis on suicides in Spain: an interrupted time-series analysis. Eur J Public Health. 2013 Jun 25. [Epub ahead of print]

Mandavia AD, Bonanno GA. When Natural Disaster Follows Economic Downturn: The Incremental Impact of Multiple Stressor Events on Trajectories of Depression and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2018 Apr 29:1-10. doi: 10.1017/dmp.2018.12. [Epub ahead of print]

Martin-Carrasco M, Evans-Lacko S, Dom G, Christodoulou NG, Samochowiec J, González-Fraile E, Bienkowski P, Gómez-Beneyto M, Dos Santos MJ, Wasserman D. EPA guidance on mental health and economic crises in Europe. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2016 Mar;266(2):89-124.

Masedo-Gutierrez AI, Moreno-Kustner B. Economic crisis and mortality by suicide: two concepts hard to link. Eur J Public Health. 2015 May 11.. [Epub ahead of print].

Mehta K, Kramer H, Durazo-Arvizu R, Cao G, Tong L, Rao M. Depression in the US population during the time periods surrounding the great recession. J Clin Psychiatry. 2015 Apr;76(4):e499-504.

Madianos M, Economou M, Alexiou T, Stefanis C. Depression and economic hardship across Greece in 2008 and 2009: two cross-sectional surveys nationwide.  Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2011 Oct;46(10):943-52.

Mattei G, Ferrari S, Pingani L, Rigatelli M. Short-term effects of the 2008 Great Recession on the health of the Italian population: an ecological study. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2014 Jan 21. [Epub ahead of print]

McConkey R, Kelly F, Craig S, Keogh F. Irish persons with intellectual disability moving from family care to residential accommodation in a period of austerity. J Appl Res Intellect Disabil. 2018 Feb 9. doi: 10.1111/jar.12439. [Epub ahead of print]

McDaid D, Quaglio G, Correia de Campos A, Dario C, Van Woensel L, Karapiperis T, Reeves A. Health protection in times of economic crisis: Challenges and opportunities for Europe. J Public Health Policy. 2013 Aug 29.  [Epub ahead of print]

McDaid D, Knapp M. Black-skies planning? Prioritising mental health services in times of austerity. Br J Psychiatry. 2010 Jun;196(6):423-4

McLaughlin KA, Nandi A, Keyes KM, Uddin M, Aiello AE, Galea S, Koenen KC. Home foreclosure and risk of psychiatric morbidity during the recent financial crisis. Psychol Med. 2012 Jul;42(7):1441-8. 

McInerney M, Mellor JM, Nicholas LH. Recession depression: mental health effects of the 2008 stock market crash. J Health Econ. 2013 Dec;32(6):1090-104.

Medel-Herrero A, Gomez-Beneyto M. The impact of the 2008 economic crisis on the increasing number of young psychiatric inpatients. Rev Psiquiatr Salud Ment 2017 Nov 21. pii: S1888-9891(17)30126-X. doi: 10.1016/j.rpsm.2017.10.002 [Epub ahead of print].

Merzagora I, Mugellini G, Amadasi A, Travaini G. Suicide Risk and the Economic Crisis: An Exploratory Analysis of the Case of Milan. Plos One 2016;11(12).

Milner A, Morrell S, LaMontagne AD. Economically inactive, unemployed and employed suicides in Australia by age and sex over a 10-year period: what was the impact of the 2007 economic recession? Int J Epidemiol. 2014 Jul 26. [Epub ahead of print] 

Milner AJ, Niven H, LaMontagne AD. Occupational class differences in suicide: evidence of changes over time and during the global financial crisis in Australia. BMC Psychiatry. 2015 Sep 21;15(1):223.

Miret M, Caballero FF, Huerta-Ramírez R, Moneta MV, Olaya B, Chatterji S, Haro JM, Ayuso-Mateos JL. Factors associated with suicidal ideation and attempts in Spain for different age groups. Prevalence before and after the onset of the economic crisis. J Affect Disord. 2014 Jul;163:1-9.

Mota Pereira J. Financial crisis increases the risk of depression relapse. J Psychiatr Res. 2014 Nov 25.  [Epub ahead of print] 

Modrek S, Hamad R, Cullen MR. Psychological well-being during the great recession: changes in mental health care utilization in an occupational cohort. Am J Public Health. 2015 Feb;105(2):304-10.

Mylona K, Tsiantou V, Zavras D, Pavi E, Kyriopoulos J. Determinants of self-reported frequency of depressive symptoms in Greece during economic crisis. Public Health. 2014 Aug;128(8):752-4. 

Mucci N, Giorgi G, Roncaioli M, Fiz Perez J, Arcangeli G. The correlation between stress and economic crisis: a systematic review. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2016;12:983-93. Review.

Nicieza-García ML, Alonso-Lorenzo JC, Suárez-Gil P, Rilla-Villar N. [Effect of the economic crisis on consumption of psychotropic drugs in Asturias (Spain)]. Gac Sanit. 2016 Mar 23. [Epub ahead of print] Spanish.

Niedzwiedz CL, Mitchell RJ, Shortt NK, Pearce JR. Social protection spending and inequalities in depressive symptoms across Europe. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2016 Apr 30. [Epub ahead of print]

Navarro-Mateu F, Tormo MJ, Salmerónn D, Vilagut G, Navarro C, Ruí¬z-Merino G, Escámez T, Juádez J, Martí¬nez S, Kessler RC, Alonso J. Prevalence of Mental Disorders in the South-East of Spain, One of the European Regions Most Affected by the Economic Crisis: The Cross-Sectional PEGASUS-Murcia Project. PLoS One. 2015;10(9):e0137293.

Ng KH, Agius M, Zaman R. The global economic crisis: effects on mental health and what can be done. J R Soc Med. 2013 Jun;106(6):211-4. 

No authors listed. Depression and the global economic crisis: is there hope? Lancet. 2012 Oct 6;380(9849):1203. 

No authors listed. Accelerating suicide rate linked to economic downturn in the US. BMJ. 2012 Nov 12;345:e7638.

No authors listed. The economic crisis in Spain and its impact on the mental health of children and adolescents. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2013 Sep;22(9):583-6. 

No authors listed. Economic crisis prompts rise in suicides and mental ill health. Nurs Stand. 2016 Sep 21;31(4):16.

Norström T, Grönqvist H. The Great Recession, unemployment and suicide. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2014 Oct 22  [Epub ahead of print].

Odone A, Landriscina T, Amerio A, Costa G. The impact of the current economic crisis on mental health in Italy: evidence from two representative national surveys. Eur J Public Health 2017 Dec 27. doi: 10.1093/eurpub/ckx220. [Epub ahead of print].

O'Dowd A. Economic recession may have caused 10 000 extra suicides. BMJ. 2014 Jun 11;348:g3809.

O'Neill S, Corry C, McFeeters D, Murphy S, Bunting B. Suicide in NorthernIreland. Crisis. 2015 Dec 23:1-8. [Epub ahead of print]

Papaslanis T, Kontaxakis V, Christodoulou C, Konstantakopoulos G, Kontaxaki MI, Papadimitriou GN. Suicide in Greece 1992-2012: A time-series analysis. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2016 May 9. [Epub ahead of print]

Paraschakis A, Michopoulos I, Efstathiou V, Christodoulou C, Boyokas I, Douzenis A. A comparative analysis of suicides in Greece's main port city area of Piraeus before (2006-2010) and during (2011-2015) the country's severe economic crisis. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2018 Feb 28;13:725-739. doi: 10.2147/COPD.S150308

Pérez-Romero S, Gascón-Cánovas JJ, de la Cruz-Sánchez E, Sánchez-Ruiz JF, Parra-Hidalgo P, Monteagudo-Piqueras O. [Economic recession (2006-2012) and changes in the health status of the Spanish population]. Salud Publica Mex. 2016 Feb;58(1):41-8. Spanish.

Pfoertner TK, Rathmann K, Elgar FJ, de Looze M, Hofmann F, Ottova-Jordan V, Ravens-Sieberer U, Bosakova L, Currie C, Richter M. Adolescents' psychological health complaints and the economic recession in late 2007: a multilevel study in  31 countries. Eur J Public Health. 2014 May 23. [Epub ahead of print]

Phillips JA, Nugent CN. Suicide and the Great Recession of 2007-2009: the role of economic factors in the 50 U.S. states. Soc Sci Med. 2014 Sep;116:22-31.

Pompili M, Vichi M, Innamorati M, Lester D, Yang B, De Leo D, Girardi P. Suicide in Italy during a time of economic recession: some recent data related to age and gender based on a nationwide register study. Health Soc Care Community. 2013 Dec 6. [Epub ahead of print] 

Porras-Segovia A, Valmisa E, Gutiérrez B, Ruiz I, Rodríguez-Barranco M, Cervilla J. Prevalence and correlates of major depression in Granada, Spain: Results from the GranadΣp study. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2018 May 1:20764018771405. doi: 10.1177/0020764018771405. [Epub ahead of print]

Rachiotis G, Kourousis C, Kamilaraki M, Symvoulakis EK, Dounias G, Hadjichristodoulou C. Medical supplies shortages and burnout among greek health care workers during economic crisis: a pilot study. Int J Med Sci. 2014 Mar 11;11(5):442-7

Rachiotis G, Stuckler D, McKee M, Hadjichristodoulou C. What has happened to suicides during the Greek economic crisis? Findings from an ecological study of suicides and their determinants (2003-2012). BMJ Open. 2015 Mar 25;5(3):e007295.

Rajmil L, Siddiqi A, Taylor-Robinson D, Spencer N. Understanding the impact of the economic crisis on child health: the case of Spain. Int J Equity Health. 2015 Oct 14;14:95.

Rajmil L, Medina-Bustos A, Fernández de Sanmamed MJ, Mompart-Penina A. Impact of the economic crisis on children's health in Catalonia: a before-after approach. BMJ Open. 2013 Aug 23;3(8):e003286. 

Real E, Jover L, Verdaguer R, Griera A, Segalàs C, Alonso P, Contreras F,Arteman A, Menchón JM. Factors Associated with Long-Term Sickness Absence Due to Mental Disorders: A Cohort Study of 7.112 Patients during the Spanish EconomicCrisis. PLoS One. 2016 Jan 5;11(1):e0146382.

Reeves A, McKee M, Gunnell D, Chang SS, Basu S, Barr B, Stuckler D. Economic shocks, resilience, and male suicides in the Great Recession: cross-national analysis of 20 EU countries. Eur J Public Health. 2014 Oct 6. 

Reeves A, McKee M, Stuckler D. Economic suicides in the Great Recession in . Br J Psychiatry. 2014 Jun 12. [Epub ahead of print] 

Reeves A, Stuckler D, McKee M, Gunnell D, Chang SS, Basu S. Increase in state suicide rates in the USA during economic recession. Nov 24;380(9856):1813-4. 

Reibling N, Beckfield J, Huijts T, Schmidt-Catran A, Thomson KH, Wendt C. Depressed during the depression: has the economic crisis affected mental health inequalities in Europe? Findings from the European Social Survey (2014) special module on the determinants of health. Eur J Public Health 2017 Feb 1;27(suppl_1):47-54. doi: 10.1093/eurpub/ckw225.

Rivera B, Casal B, Currais L. Crisis, suicide and labour productivity lossesin Spain. Eur J Health Econ. 2016 Jan 22. [Epub ahead of print]

Riumallo-Herl C, Basu S, Stuckler D, Courtin E, Avedano M. Job loss, wealth and depression during the Great Recession in the USA and Europe. Int J Epidemiol.2014 Oct;43(5):1508-17 

Robert G, Martínez JM, García AM, Benavides FG, Ronda E. From the boom to the crisis: changes in employment conditions of immigrants in Spain and their effects on mental health. Eur J Public Health. 2014 Mar 14. [Epub ahead of print]

Rodrigues DFS, Nunes C. Inpatient Profile of Patients with Major Depression in Portuguese National Health System Hospitals, in 2008 and 2013: Variation in a Time of Economic Crisis. Community Ment Health J 2017 May 4. doi: 10.1007/s10597-017-0144-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Rojas Y, Stenberg SÃ. Evictions and suicide: a follow-up study of almost 22,000 Swedish households in the wake of the global financial crisis. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2015 Nov 4. [Epub ahead of print]

Santana P, Costa C, Cardoso G, Loureiro A, Ferrão J. Suicide in Portugal: Spatial determinants in a context of economic crisis. Health PlaceSpatial determinants in a context of economic crisis. Health Place. 2015 Aug 12;35:85-94. doi: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2015.07.001. [Epub ahead of print]

Saridi M, Kordosi A, Toska A, Peppou LE, Economou M, Souliotis K. Attitudes of health professionals towards the stigma surrounding depression in times of economic crisis. Int J Soc Psychiatry 2017 Jan 5;63(2):115-125.

Saurina C, Bragulat B, Saez M, López-Casasnovas G. A conditional model for estimating the increase in suicides associated with the 2008-2010 economic recession in England. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2013 Sep;67(9):779-87. Epub 2013 Jun 22.

Saurina C, Marzo M, Saez M. Inequalities in suicide mortality rates and the economic recession in the municipalities of Catalonia, Spain. Int J Equity Health. 2015 Sep 8;14:75.


Shi Z, Taylor AW, Goldney R, Winefield H, Gill TK, Tuckerman J, Wittert G. The use of a surveillance system to measure changes in mental health in Australian adults during the global financial crisis. Int J Public Health. 2011 Aug;56(4):367-72.

Shin J, Choi JW, Jang SI, Choi Y, Lee SG, Ihm TH, Park EC. The temporal association of excessive health expenditure with suicidal ideation among primary income earners: a cross-sectional design using the Korean Welfare Panel Survey (KoWePS). BMJ Open. 2015 Jun 16;5(6):e007421. 

Shin JH, Lee G, Kim JS, Oh HS, Lee KS, Hur Y, Cho BL. Effects of the 2008 Global Economic Crisis on National Health Indicators: Results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination SurveyGlobal Economic Crisis on National Health Indicators: Results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Korean J Fam Med. 2015 Jul;36(4):162-7.

Sicras-Mainar A, Navarro-Artieda R. Use of antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder in primary care during a period of economic crisis.Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2015 Dec 30;12:29-40.

Sifaki-Pistolla D, Chatzea VE, Melidoniotis E, Mechili EA. Distress and burnout in young medical researchers before and during the Greek austerity measures: forerunner of a greater crisis? Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2018 Apr 2. doi: 10.1007/s00127-018-1509-y. [Epub ahead of print]

Snorradóttir Á, Vilhjálmsson R, Rafnsdóttir GL, Tómasson K. Financial crisis and collapsed banks: Psychological distress and work related factors among surviving employees-A nation-wide study. Am J Ind Med. 2013 Sep;56(9):1095-106.

Starace F, Mungai F, Sarti E, Addabbo T. Self-reported unemployment status and recession: An analysis on the Italian population with and without mental health problems. PLoS One 2017 Apr 4;12(4):e0174135. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0174135. eCollection 2017.

Stavrianakos K, Kontaxakis V, Moussas G, Paplos K, Papaslanis T, Havaki-Kontaxaki B, Papadimitriou G.[Attempted suicide during the financial crisis in Athens]. Psychiatriki. 2014 Apr-Jun;25(2):104-10.

Stuckler D, Basu S, Suhrcke M, Coutts A, McKee M.. Effects of the 2008 recession on health: a first look at European data. Lancet. 2011 Jul 9;378(9786):124-5

Sweeney HA, Knudsen K. The Impact of the Great Recession on Community-Based Mental Health Organizations: An Analysis of Top Managers' Perceptions of the Economic Downturn's Effects and Adaptive Strategies Used to Manage the Consequences in Ohio. Community Ment Health J. 2013 Feb 14. [Epub ahead of print]

Skokou M, Gouma P, Gourzis P. Compulsory admissions: Possibly another dark side of the Greek economic crisis. Psychiatriki. 2016 Jan-Mar;27(1):51-3.

Starace F, Mungai F, Sarti E, Addabbo T. Being hit twice: The psychological consequences of the economic crisis and an earthquake. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2016 Feb 29. [Epub ahead of print]

Tanji F, Kakizaki M, Sugawara Y, Watanabe I, Nakaya N, Minami Y, Fukao A,Tsuji I. Personality and suicide risk: the impact of economic crisis in Japan. Psychol Med. 2014 Jul 18:1-15. [Epub ahead of print]

Ten Have M, van Dorsselaer S, de Graaf R. The association between type and number of adverse working conditions and mental health during a time of economic crisis (2010-2012).Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2015 Jan 18. [Epub ahead of print]

Thern E, de Munter J, Hemmingsson T, Rasmussen F. Long-term effects of youth unemployment on mental health: does an economic crisis make a difference? J Epidemiol Community Health 2017 Apr;71(4):344-349.

Tobey T, McAuliff K, Rocha C. Parental employment status and symptoms of children abused during a recession. J Child Sex Abus. 2013;22(4):416-28.

Torá I, Martínez JM, Benavides FG, Leveque K, Ronda E. Effect of economic recession on psychosocial working conditions by workers' nationality. Int J OccupEnviron Health. 2015 Oct;21(4):328-32

Tsai FJ, Chan CC. The impact of the 2008 financial crisis on psychological work stress among financial workers and lawyers. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2011 Apr;84(4):445-52.

Tsiligianni IG, Papadokostakis P, Prokopiadou D, Stefanaki I, Tsakountakis N, Lionis C. Impact of the financial crisis on adherence to treatment of a rural population in Crete, Greece. Qual Prim Care. 2015;22(5):238-44.

Turunen E, Hiilamo H. Health effects of indebtedness: a systematic review. BMC Public Health. 2014 May 22;14:489.

Utzet M, Navarro A, Llorens C, Muntaner C, Is the worsening of psychosocial exposures associated with mental health? Comparing two population-based cross-sectional studies in Spain, 2005-2010. Am J Ind Med. 2016 May;59(5):399-407..

Urbanos-Garrido RM, Lopez-Valcarcel BG. The influence of the economic crisis on the association between unemployment and health: an empirical analysis for Spain. Eur J Health Econ. 2014 Jan 28. [Epub ahead of print]

Uutela A. Economic crisis and mental health. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2010 Mar;23(2):127-30.

Vanderoost F, van der Wielen S, van Nunen K, Van Hal G.Employment loss during economic crisis and suicidal thoughts in Belgium: a survey in general practice. Br J Gen Pract. 2013 Oct;63(615):e691-7

Vittadini G, Beghi M, Mezzanzanica M, Ronzoni G, Cornaggia CM. Use of psychotropic drugs in Lombardy in time of economic crisis (2007-2011): A population-based study of adult employees. Psychiatry Res. 2014 Jun 13.  [Epub ahead of print]

Vlachadis N, Vlachadi M, Iliodromiti Z, Kornarou E, Vrachnis N. Greece's economic crisis and suicide rates: overview and outlook. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2014 Jul 12.

Van Hal G. The true cost of the economic crisis on psychological well-being: a review. Psychol Res Behav Manag. 2015;8:17-25.

Vives A, González F, Moncada S, Llorens C, Benach J. Measuring precarious employment in times of crisis: the revised Employment Precariousness Scale (EPRES) in Spainemployment in times of crisis: the revised Employment Precariousness Scale (EPRES) in Spain. Gac Sanit. 2015 Sep-Oct;29(5):379-82.

Vandoros S, Kavetsos G. Now or later? Understanding the etiologic period of suicide. Prev Med Rep. 2015;2:809-11.

Vásquez-Vera H, Rodrí­guez-Sanz M, Palència L, Borrell C. Foreclosure and Health in Southern Europe: Results from the Platform for People Affected by Mortgages. J Urban Health. 2016 Apr;93(2):312-30.

Wang J, Smailes E, Sareen J, Fick GH, Schmitz N, Patten SB. The prevalence of mental disorders in the working population over the period of global economic crisis. Can J Psychiatry. 2010 Sep;55(9):598-605.

Williams R, Hazell P. Austerity, poverty, resilience, and the future of mental health services for children and adolescents. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2011 Jul;24(4):263-6. 

Wise J. GPs in England prescribed 2.7 million extra antidepressants during 2012 recession. BMJ. 2014 May 28;348:g3607.

Wahlbeck K, McDaid D. Actions to alleviate the mental health impact of the economic crisis. World Psychiatry. 2012 Oct;11(3):139-45.

Wilkinson LR. Financial Strain and Mental Health Among Older Adults During the Great Recession. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2016 Feb 3. [Epub ahead of print]

Zapata Moya AR, Buffel V, Navarro Yáñez CJ, Bracke P. Social inequality in morbidity, framed within the current economic crisis in Spain. Int J Equity Health. 2015 Nov 14;14(1):131.

Zissi A, Stalidis G. Social class and mental distress in Greek urban communities during the period of economic recession. Int J Soc Psychiatry 2017 Aug;63(5):459-467. doi: 10.1177/0020764017712743. Epub 2017 Jun 12.

Zivin K, Paczkowski M, Galea S. Economic downturns and population mental health: research findings, gaps, challenges and priorities. Psychol Med. 2011 Jul;41(7):1343-8.