Countries reported using a wide range of strategies to adjust to having fewer financial resources. The challenge has been to maintain universal access to high quality health care by introducing policies that generate savings and efficiency gains. Under normal circumstances such policies are often a priority, but the crisis has provided additional impetus in many countries. The strategies countries adopted include efforts to:

  • adapt provider payment
  • strengthen pharmaceutical policy
  • prioritise and strengthen primary care access and quality
  • reduce costs by restructuring organisations and facilities
  • prioritise cost-effective investment
  • improve population health.


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